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KURSUS KAEDAH PENGAJARAN SEJARAH SESI 2009/2010

Selamat Datang Ke Kursus LSP4023– Kaedah Pengajaran Sejarah merupakan satu pendekatan penting dalam melahirkan bakal guru sejarah yang kreatif dan berketrampilan .kursus-kursus yang diharapkan akan menjadikan anda:Guru sejarah yang juga seorang sejarahwan dan berfikir sebahagai ahli sejarah dan mengaplikasikan kemahiran sejarah kepada pelajar sejarah.
SELAMAT HARI GURU KEPADA SEMUA GURU DAN BAKAL GURU SENSEI NO HI ..GAMBATTE KU DASAI JA NE


Tuesday, March 31, 2009

PEMBELAJARAN BERPUSATKAN PELAJAR


"interaction of a team of students that experience creative learning to be used in the real world ……. students are essential to the classroom, just like a team member is essential to a game" (Thornburg, 1995)

"the goals of a system (school) should meet the goals of the students (Harmon, & Hirumi, 1996).
nthe learner has some control in the type of instruction that is given. The control factors can range from "procedures" to "time restraints" to "evaluation"

DEFINASI

Tumpuan kepada perkembangan pembelajaran (pelajar sebagai individu), memberi pilihan kepada pelajar (jenis pengetahuan dan apa yang ingin dipelajari), mewujudkan kolaborasi (membina pengetahuan dan persekitaran positif), terlibat dalam penilaian berterusan; sikap guru yang mendengar pandangan pelajar dan melibatkan pelajar untuk merancang.

Pelajar bertanggungjawab atas pembelajarannya, melibatkan pelajar secara terus dalam menemui pengetahuan; menggunakan bahan yang mencabar pengetahuan sedia ada dan pemahaman konsep baru yang mendalam; pembelajaran yang melibatkan interaksi sosial; menggunakan sekolah, pekerjaan, rumah dan komuniti sebagai resos; menggunakan aktiviti luar untuk meningkatkan pemnbelajaran.

1. PRINSIP PEMBELAJARAN BERPUSATKAN PELAJAR

I.Daya berfikir, minat dan perbezaan individu pelajar merupakan pertimbangan utama dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran.

II.Aktiviti-aktiviti pengajaran dan pembelajaran dirancang untuk melibatkan pelajar secara aktif, dimana guru hanya sebagai fasilitator.

III.Pembelajaran terarah kendiri dan akses kendiri diberi keutamaan.

IV.Penekanan diberikan terhadap penilaian kendiri.

2. STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN BERPUSATKAN PELAJAR

•mewujudkan pengalaman pembelajaran yang dapat menarik minat pelajar serta menggalakkan penglibatan mereka dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran.
•memberikan peluang kepada pelajar untuk belajar secara individu, kumpulan dan kelas.
•melibatkan pelajar dalam membentuk proses pembelajaran melalui rundingan berasaskan kekuatan dan kelemahan pelajar.
•memberi pelajar kebebasan membuat pilihan tentang bahan sumber dan aktiviti pembelajaran.
•mewujudkan prosedur pemantauan agar pelajar bertanggungjawab ke atas apa yang dipelajari oleh mereka
•merancang penilaian berterusan secara kolaboratif.

SITUASI PEMBELAJARAN

"teachers are part of the definition of student-centered learning, but they are not the main attraction"

"the teacher is the one who can assist among small groups of students"

"the students can "access, interpret, organize, apply, and transfer information to solve problems“
"size of a groups for student-centered learning can be five to six heterogeneous (academic ability, gender, etc.) students "(Harmon, & Hirumi 1996).

3.Learning Cycle approach

I. "exploration, concept introduction and concept application".

II. During these three phases the students worked together in-groups while discussing their ideas and using manipulatives to act out the concepts.

III.the teacher would act as a facilitator, while the students discussed their ideas, and created more ideas and situations to figure out

IV.During the lessons, the students were in active control and they could lead the lesson with their ideas and conclusions.

V.tailors all aspects of service delivery and support to the needs of students

VI.services that students will recognize as efficient, empathetic, responsive, and ultimately exceeding their expectations

PENGUMUMAN PENTING


PERHATIAN KEPADA SEMUA PELAJAR LSP 4023


TUGASAN


1. TUGASAN MICRO TEACHING MESTI DIHANTAR PADA 7 APRIL 2009 SELEPAS

KULIAH TERMASUK YANG BELUM MEMBUAT PEMBENTANGAN.


2. TUGASAN KUMPULAN TARIKH AKHIR HANTAR JUGA PADA 7 APRIL 2009

SELEPAS KULIAH.


SEBARANG KELEWATAN TIDAK AKAN DILAYAN.

HARAP MAKLUM DAN TERIMA KASIH


GAMBATTE NE.

PEMUPUKAN PATRIOTISME DIKALANGAN PELAJAR MELALUI KULIAH 12: PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN SEJARAH


Patriotisme adalah perasaan cinta yang kuat terhadap tanahair. Perasaan cinta yang kuat terhadap tanahair ini sudah pasti wujud dihati setiap individu warganegara Malaysia yang berdaulat dan merdeka dalam usaha mencapai matlamat dan aspirasi negara. Dalam negara seperti Malaysia yang terdiri daripada rakyat berbilang kaum sudah pasti semangat patriotsme akan dapat membentuk sebuah negara Malaysia yang bersatupadu dan harmonis. Patriotisme juga diserapkan dalam semua matapelajaran secara merentas kurikulum .

Patriotisme adalah perasaan yang kuat terhadap tanah air . Perasaan ini perlu wujud di hati setiap individu rakyat Malaysia yang berbilang kaum. Sehubungan itu , semangat patriotik dapat membentuk rakyat Malaysia yang bersatu padu dan harmoni. Justeru , berdasarkan pengetahuan dan pemahaman aspek-aspek sejarah negara, murid dibimbing untuk menganalisis dan menilai fakta-fakta sejarah secara rasional. Natijah daripada pemahaman dan penghayatan sejarah negara , para pelajar dapat membina kekuatan semangat cinta akan negara. ( PPK , 2000 , 4 )





Saturday, March 28, 2009

FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN NEGARA DAN FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN KEBANGSAAN


KEMUNCULAN FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN NEGARA DAN FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN KEBANGSAAN

Keperluan untuk menyatakan FPN secara tersurat telah lama disedari. Oleh itu langkah untuk menggubal FPN yang menjadi cermin dan cita-cita serta idealisme yang hendak diperjuangkan oleh rakyat negara ini melalui sistem pendidikan memang dinanti-nantikan. Dalam penggubalannya pertimbangan yang teliti perlu dihalusi dengan merujuk kepada perkara-perkara berikut :

1. Penyata Razak 1956
2. Laporan Rahman Talib 1960
3. Akta Pelajaran 1961
4. Laporan JK Kabinet 1974
5. Laporan JK Kabinet 1979
6. Rukunegara
7. Prinsip-prinsip pendidikan
8. Matlamat pendidikan
9. Dasar Pendidikan Kebangsaan

Perakuan 191, Laporan Jawatankuasa Kabinet, 1979. Perakuan 191 menegaskan :

“ Pendidikan di negara ini adalah untuk mencapai perkembangan murid yang menyeluruh, iaitu perkembangan yang meliputi aspek kognitif atau intelek, jasmani, sosial, emosi, sikap dan nilai-nilai etika pada murid-murid dan generasi akan datang. “

Laporan Jawatankuasa Kabinet, 1979, dibentuk adalah hasil daripada maklum balas dan laporan daripada Jawatankuasa Kabinet tahun 1974.

Pembentukan Jawatankuasa Kabinet tahun 1974, adalah kerana berlakunya peristiwa rusuhan kaum 13 Mei 1969, pembentukan Rukunegara, 1970 dan pelancaran Dasar Ekonomi Baru, 1970. Peristiwa-peristiwa tersebut, telah mendorong kerajaan mengkaji semula dasar pendidikan kebangsaan sebelum ini yang kurang menitikberatkan perpaduan negara dan memajukan aspek sosial, ekonomi dan politik untuk membangunkan bangsa dan negara.

Laporan Jawatankuasa Kabinet, 1979, yang menitikberatkan aspek nilai hanya diistiharkan pada tahun 1998 dan dijelmakan secara rasmi melalui Falsafah Pendidikan Negara pada tahun 1988.

Menurut Akta Pendidikan tahun 1996, Falsafah Pendidikan Negara tahun 1988, telah digantikan dengan Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan pada tahun 1996 (Kementerian Pendidikan, 1999).
Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan, 1996, berbunyi :
“ Pendidikan di Malaysia ialah satu usaha berterusan ke arah lebih memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secara menyeluruhdan bersepadu untuk melahirkan insan yang seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi dan jasmani berdasarkan kepada kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada tuhan. Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berketrampilan, berakhlak mulia, bertanggungjawab dan berkeupayaan mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbangan terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga, masyarakat dan negara. “

Selain itu, Laporan Jawatankuasa Kabinet, 1979 juga, telah menetapkan secara tersurat dan tersirat penentuan wajah dan jenis warganegara Malaysia yang perlu dibentuk melalui sistem pendidikan di Malaysia. Keperihatinan dan hasrat Jawatankuasa tersebut dirakamkan seperti berikut :
“ Mereka bukan sahaja perlu cekap bahkan perlu boleh berfikir dan bertindak dengan baik sama ada secara sendiri mahu pun secara beramai-ramai dengan berpandukan punca-punca akhlak yang mulia. Tegasnya individu yang lahir dari sistem persekolahan negara perlu selaras dengan tujuan pembangunan kemanusiaan. “

Ringkasnya, berdasarkan Laporan Jawatankuasa Kabinet, 1979, peranan pendidikan tidak lagi hanya ditumpukan kepada perpaduan negara dan pengeluaran sumber tenaga manusia, tetapi pendidikan turut ditumpukan kepada pembentukan keperibadian insan selaras dengan pembangunan kemanusiaan.

Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan, 1996, telah menetapkan matlamat pendidikan negara dengan jelas, iaitu pendidikan ke arah melahirkan insan, masyarakat dan warganegara yang baik. Pada asasnya, insan baik yang hendak dilahirkan itu perlu memiliki yang ciri-ciri berikut :

1. Percaya dan patuh kepada tuhan.
2. Berilmu pengetahuan dan berketrampilan.
3. Berakhlak mulia.
4. Bertanggung jawab kepada diri, masyarakat, agama, bangsa dan negara.
5. Berbakti dan bersedia memberi sumbangan kepada masyarakat, agama, bangsa dan negara.

Dalam usaha mencapai hasrat Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan, 1996 dan matlamat pendidikan negara, nilai-nilai murni tidak dapat dilakukan tanpa mengasas, membina dan mengembangkannya melalui sistem pendidikan. Oleh yang demikian tindakan pada peringkat pelaksanaan, hendaklah ditegaskan. Dalam konteks sistem pendidikan kita, nilai-nilai yang dimaksudkan ialah nilai-nilai yang luhur dan murni. Unsur-unsur nilai murni yang dimaksudkan itu ialah nilai-nilai murni yang bersifat tetap dan kudus yang diamalkan oleh semua agama dan bersifat sarwajagat (universal). Nilai-nilai murni tersebut adalah berasaskan pandangan dan maklum balas yang diperolehi dan diputuskan oleh Jawatankuasa Pendidikan Akhlak tahun 1976, yang dianggotai oleh wakil pelbagai agama.

Nilai-nilai murni tersebut ialah :

1. Baik hati.
2. Berdikari.
3. Hemah Tinggi.
4. Hormat Menghormati.
5. Kasih Sayang.
6. Keadilan.
7. Kebebasan.
8. Keberanian.
9. Kebersihan Fizikal dan Mental.
10. Kejujuran.
11. Kerajinan.
12. Kerjasama.
13. Kesederhanaan.
14. Kesyukuran.
15. Rasional.
16. Semangat Bermasyarakat.

Penerapan nilai-nilai murni dalam pengajaran disokong oleh R. W. Taylor yang menurutnya, nilai murni ini tidak dapat dipisahkan melalui pendidikan. (Dr. Wan Mohd Zaid bin Wan Mohd Noordin, 1993, dalam Wawasan Pendidikan). Taylor berpendapat :

“ Education is an arena which all realms of values may be concern “

Bersabit dengan pendidikan dan nilai-nilai murni, Dr. Wan Mohd Zaid bin Wan Mohd Noordin, 1988, ketika menjadi Ketua Pengarah Pendidikan Malaysia, semasa membentangkan kertas kerjanya yang bertajuk Ke arah Perlaksanaan Nilai-nilai Murni Di Dalam KBSM : Falsafah Pendidikan Negara, pada Seminar Nilai-nilai Murni Merentas Kurikulum, Dalam Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah (KBSM) , di Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, tahun 1988, telah mengambil pandangan E.F Schumacer yang menjelaskan tentang nilai (dalam, Small is beautiful, hal. 83) iaitu :

“ The essence of education … is the transmission of values, but values do not help us to pick our way through life unless they have became our own, a part so to say, of our mental wake up. “

Manakala Hanna Holborn Gray, Universiti Chicago (PPK, Fail Reformasi, 1990, hal. 10) menyokong bahawa nilai murni sangat penting diterapkan melalui pendidikan untuk menghasilkan manusia yang baik dan mulia. Beliau menyatakan :
“ To think about the aims of education is to think of what kind of person, what kind of human competence, what kind of goals might be most desirable for the sosial order and the quality of civilized existence. “

Oleh itu, hubungan nilai dan sistem pendidikan adalah sangat rapat. Selaras dengan hasrat Laporan Jawatankuasa Kabinet, 1979, dan Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan, 1996, semua guru di sekolah rendah dan sekolah menengah diminta mengajar, menyisip atau memasukkan nilai-nilai murni melalui Pendidikan Islam untuk pelajar-pelajar Islam dan Pendidikan Moral untuk pelajar-pelajar bukan Islam. Langkah ini telah dilaksanakan di peringkat rendah melalui Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah (KBSR) tahun 1982, di sekolah percubaan dan tahun 1983 di semua sekolah rendah di Malaysia. Di peringkat sekolah menengah, penerapan nilai-nilai murni telah dilaksanakan ketika penggubalan Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah (KBSM) pada tahun 1988, di sekolah percubaan dan sepenuhnya pada tahun 1989 di seluruh Malaysia, yang pada waktu itu persoalan penerapan nilai-nilai murni lebih menonjol dan ketara. Untuk menjayakan cita-cita ini, Kementerian Pendidikan memutuskan untuk melaksanakan penerapan nilai-nilai murni secara komprehensif. Strategi yang diambil ialah dengan cara menerapkan nilai-nilai murni merentasi kurikulum. Dalam kata lain, nilai-nilai murni disisip melalui semua mata pelajaran yang diajar dan diamalkan melalui kegiatan kokurikulum di sekolah.

Kementerian Pendidikan juga memutuskan untuk menggunakan strategi bersepadu di peringkat sekolah menengah dengan memastikan supaya semua mata pelajaran yang diajar tidak terpisah antara satu sama lain. Unsur utama yang digunakan untuk kesepaduan ini ialah melalui penerapan unsur nilai-nilai murni. Ini bermakna semua guru dikehendaki menyemai dan membangunkan kesedaran terhadap nilai-nilai murni dalam setiap mata pelajaran yang diajar, bermula tahun 1989 apabila KBSM diperkenalkan.

Friday, March 27, 2009

Simulations


Simulations are a useful teaching strategy for illustrating a complex and changing situation. Simulations are (necessarily) less complex than the situations they represent.

In a simulation, the learner acts, the simulation reacts, the learner learns from this feedback. Examples of simulations: car and flight simulators, SIM City, Monopoly, mock elections, model UN. Note that in each of these cases, the “game” involves rules, and the students must make decisions. Each decision a student makes affects the outcome of the game.

For the students to learn what you intend for them to learn from the simulation, you must hold a discussion during and/or after the game. This is integral to the students' learning. There is so much we could have learned from playing Monopoly that went right through our heads because there was no discussion about what it all meant. (Not that there isn't time to play without focusing on learning. But that kind of play takes place outside of classrooms, not in them.)

Practicalities

Phase One: Orientation

- Explain to your students what simulations are about and for. (If you mention some common games they play which are simulations, they might start thinking about what real life complex situations the games model, and might learn something about them.)

- Describe the particular simulation.

- Ensure the students understand the purpose of the simulation.

- Outline the rules for the students. I put the rules on an overhead, and leave the overhead on during the simulation. You could also write the rules on bristle board, and hang this in a conspicuous place during the activity.

- Assign roles to the students.

Phase Two: The Simulation

- The students participate in the game, playing their roles as assigned. You, are the coach and referee. You should stay uninvolved, except when you notice that you can facilitate the educational opportunities the simulation presents.

- While your students are playing, you could make anecdotal records, or fill in checklists.

Phase Three: Debrief

For every teaching strategy involving a debrief, I will suggest a different method. There are a number of ways in which debriefs can be done. Please mix and match the different forms of debriefs you use.

- Put the students into small groups.

- Choose three or four learning objectives for the simulation. Write up these learning objectives as questions for discussion. One question should be about how the students think the simulation is like the real thing and how it is not like the real thing. Give each small group of students one question to discuss.

- Tell the students how much time they have to discuss the questions.

- Five minutes before the time is up, visit each group with a card which has written on it: Five minutes until presentation. “Choose a speaker and write a summary of your discussion for the speaker to present to the class.”

- An alternative to the above method would be to put groups who have discussed different question together to discuss their different questions and answers. This way, each group has an opportunity to discuss at least two of the questions.

- If you use this second method, you could have students write answers to the questions in a learning log instead of having them present to the class.

Examples of Simulations:

To illustrate the complexity of scientists at work constructing knowledge, have small groups of students assemble different parts of a jig saw puzzle.

To illustrate the variety of factors involved in animal survival, there are many simulations available in the Project Wild Activity Book. For example, one involves bears preparing for winter. The teacher drops a number of food cards around the area where the students will be playing. Some bears are given handicaps. For example, one bear is blind, so is blindfolded. One is lame, so must never run - only walk. Some bears have young, so must collect twice as much food as others. At the end of the game, tally up how many food points each bear has collected. The blind, and lame bears are unlikely to have as many points as the healthy ones, but they might. Etc.

Inquiry


Inquiry can be considered a philosophical approach to teaching ­ teaching any number of subjects, not just science ­ or can be considered a mere method. In the background here, I will discuss the philosophy of inquiry, and in the method, show one step-by-step process for helping you to start your students carrying out their own inquiry activities.

Note the words I have avoided. I have not used the word “experiment”, or the word “laboratory”. A laboratory is a place where an experiment is carried out. A laboratory report is the record of that experiment. An experiment is a contrived situation in which one variable is tested against another. Although much of science research is carried out using experiments, other inquiries are not experiments.

As a philosophy, a teacher who believes in inquiry believes that knowledge is a tentative and a social construction. As such, that teacher will want students to be actively engaged in their own learning, and will have the students carrying out investigations to construct their understandings. In science, knowledge is constructed with information from the natural world. Thus, the collection of empirical evidence will always be important to the construction of science knowledge. The teacher will also have the students discussing their findings with the teacher and with their peers, and checking what they have learned with what scientists believe. This is because science knowledge is communally constructed. The teacher will use as little direct instruction as possible.

Direct instruction comprises a number of different methods; what all direct instruction methods have in common is that the teacher has nearly complete control of what and how a topic is learned. When I first learned about inquiry, it was as a method where the teacher designed a recipe for students to follow to affirm a concept presented in class. Thus, the inquiry method I learned was a modification of direct instruction. As a student, when I carried out these activities, I wondered why the teacher would tell me that my answer ­ which I had found by actually testing the world ­ was wrong! Surely my answer was as good as his/hers, or as good as the scientists’. This problem is partially circumvented by using only “experiments” that are simple, that students are unlikely to mess up. Unfortunately, this leads to a misunderstanding of the limits of science.

The questions that scientists ask and the ways in which they interpret and analyze the data all come from the scientists’ “principles of enquiry” (Schwab, 1960). Kuhn (1960/1973) would say that questions, methods and interpretive framework come from the scientists’ paradigm, which is the overarching explanatory principle accepted by that particular community of scientists. This means that science knowledge always comes from a point of view. Scientists seek to affirm their point of view. They are watchful of affirmation to the point sometimes of attempting to disprove their point of view. Nonetheless, they only ask questions from within their point of view. Lewontin (1991) described the search for the cause and then the cure for tuberculosis. Scientists sought a parasitic cause, and found the bacterium which must be present for a person to have tuberculosis. When antibiotics were invented, the cure became available. If scientists had been working with a different principle of inquiry, they might have noticed that most victims of tuberculosis were poor, and lived in crowded conditions, and had poor diets. If the focus of science at the time had been on housing, or healthy diets, the cause of tuberculosis might well have been determined to be these factors. Tuberculosis in England was in decline before the invention of antibiotics; this was because there were less poor people in England, and living conditions were better.

If you are a teacher who has inquiry as a philosophy, you will value the different perspectives that your students bring to a question. You might set out a topic worthy of exploration, but you will leave much else up to your students. You can even leave the topic open if you encourage your students to do independent research projects beyond the curricular material being covered in class.

Inquiry: The Teaching Method

Inquiry as a teaching method was invented by social studies teachers. Students were given data from different countries, and asked to analyze the data to make generalizations and predictions about the people of the countries. Inquiry is a term used broadly to refer to everything from pseudo-experiments where the teacher has the students reify already taught concepts to one in which students have virtually total control.

The parts of a lesson should match the different components of a “laboratory report”. Usually, the first part written (or discussed in class) is the problem or question. Often, the problem or question is such that a hypothesis can be written. ENSURE THAT YOUR STUDENTS JUSTIFY THEIR HYPOTHESES. If your students are making random guesses for their hypotheses, they are demonstrating the activity will be meaningless to them. They won’t know why they are going through the steps of the procedure. Hypotheses are written as the effect of one variable on another. For example, what is the sunlight on the height of a plant? There are particular materials that are used, there is a method (or procedure) designed for answering the question (or testing the hypothesis), there are data collected or observations made, the data are analyzed or the observations discussed, and there is a conclusion.

Which of these components of the experiment will you control? Which will you leave to your students?

Before deciding how much control to give to your students, consider the pedagogical purpose for doing the experiment, the nature of the materials they will be using, the size of the space they have to work in, the nature of the students you are working with.

Pedagogical purpose of the experiment:

if you have just explained a concept to the students, and want them to see the concept at work, you will not use an experiment; rather you use what could more accurately be called a pseudo-experiment. You will choose an activity that is unlikely to go wrong; the students will follow a procedure in recipe-like fashion, all doing the same thing. These kinds of activities are unlikely to change students’ preconceptions. Students know the activities are contrived, and they know that they are expected to come up with a particular right answer. There are no surprises for them or for you. Pseudo-experiments are like demonstrations, but the students carry them out themselves. It is certainly better for the students to carry out these pseudo-experiments than to observe a demonstration, and it is better to observe a demonstration than just to hear a lecture.

If however, there are many possible answers to the problem, or if the particular answers do not matter, then you will give more control to your students. If you want your students to learn that there are different explanations for the same problem, or if the problem is complex, you will give more control to your students.

Safety: This is the single most important reason for giving guidance to students. I try to use materials which are as safe as possible, because even in a recipe situation, students will not read the instructions, or will slip while walking past boiling water, or something … Every year, someone somewhere will lean too close to the Bunsen burner, or will add the wrong chemical to a mix. When there is a safety issue, I describe the particular problem to begin with. For example, when I demonstrate dipping money in rubbing alcohol and then lighting it on fire, I show that I hold the bill with forceps and that my hand is not above or below the bill. I do not want the flames burning up on to my hand, nor do I want the rubbing alcohol dripping down onto my hand. (This particular experiment, I have students try out only under close supervision. One group tries it at a time, explaining to the class what their hypothesis is and why their method will test the hypothesis.) I always have hair elastics in my desk drawer, so that a student with long hair can tie it back before working with the Bunsen burner. Etc.

The major hint about safety ­ writing the safety considerations into a procedure does not mean that students will read, believe, remember. You really have to demonstrate what they have to pay attention to. And even then, you need to have them tell you what they plan to do.

Space: The smaller the space, the less you want your students moving around. Thus, if you have 30 students in a regular sized classroom, you can have them planning much of what they do. But if you have more students, or a smaller classroom, you will want tighter control over what they do so they are not banging into one another. You can still have them carrying out their own activities; you just have to be more organized and ensure that the materials they need are at their station.

Nature of your students: I leave this to you decide. However, I would like to point out that sometimes students act inappropriately because they want more control over their learning. Thus, it is sometimes the students you would least trust to plan their own experiments who will most benefit from it. Try it with some relatively safe activities to see how they do, before making up your mind about whether they can or cannot be trusted out of their desks.

Steps of Inquiry Lessons:

Some teachers like to give their students data sheets, with room for hypotheses, and data tables ready to fill in, and questions to be answered. There is a sample of this kind of lesson ­ the tracking lesson. Other kinds of inquiry are much more open-ended.

The steps of inquiry lessons are:

  • Purpose: The teacher tells the students what they will be learning about and tells them of the interesting implications of the lesson. For example, for tracking, a good tracker can tell the approximate size and weight of an animal s/he tracks from the tracks. The tracker has greater difficulty telling the age of the tracks, but there are clues to this as well. The students will learn, in this lesson, how to estimate size of an animal, and perhaps even speed. Then they will try finding some animal tracks. For this lesson, there is no hypothesis for the students to come up with. (In some cases, the teacher will want the students to decide what they want to study. But there will still be a pedagogical purpose for the teacher to explain to the students.)

In a different case, for example testing the growth of a bean plant according to different variables, the students can hypothesize. The teacher would introduce the purpose of the activity as: to study the effect of light and gravity of the growth of a bean seed. The students would be asked to hypothesize about what effect gravity would have on a young bean plant? Do they think the plant would grow towards or away from the centre of the earth? What effect might light have on the growth of the bean plant?

  • Hypothesis: In those activities where there will be a hypothesis, the students should always be expected to make their own hypotheses. This should be done in small groups (pairs), then in whole class discussion. Students should state their hypotheses in terms of the effect of one variable on another, and you must encourage them to justify their hypotheses.
  • Procedure: Once students have a clear idea of the purpose of the experiment or study, they should have some idea of how to find the answer. Often, the discussion of different hypotheses will give them ideas for how to test their own hypothesis. Just because they have shown that their hypothesis might be true does not mean they have proved it! The alternative might still be a possibility. They have to rule on the other hypothesis as well as showing that their hypothesis works.

For example, there is a well-known activity, where a match is dropped into a bottle, and a peeled hard-boiled egg is placed on the spout of the bottle. When the match goes out, the egg pops into the bottle. This was explained to me as the result of oxygen being consumed by the flame. An alternative is that the match heated (causing expansion of) the air, which was able to escape past the egg out of the bottle. When the match went out, the air contracted again, and the egg was drawn into the bottle. A student’s procedure must test expansion and contraction without any oxygen being consumed, or test the consumption of oxygen without any expansion or contraction.

Materials: Once students know what they plan to do, they can make a list of the materials they will need. Sometimes it helps to tell them what materials are available before they design their procedure (one small way you can retain control!) However, often the materials they need can be brought from home. If students are testing different kinds of food for starch and fat, you would encourage them to bring some from home.

Encourage your students to write what they plan to do and to write a list of what materials they need. For those who prefer to draw, encourage them to do both.

  • Data: Before students begin the experiment, remind them of all safety precautions. If they are working with chemicals, they should be wearing safety glasses. If they are working with Bunsen burners, they should have their hair tied back. Etc. Then they are to carry out their experiment. Since they designed the procedure, they should know what data to collect. They should have a plan to record their data.
  • Analysis: Again, students should know what they are trying to find. They might need assistance in steering away from their affirmation bias, however.

I have seen many students test one bean against another, with bean A watered with vinegar (to simulate acid rain) and bean B watered with pure distilled water. When bean A thrives and bean B dies, the student will start another bean B and another, until one does well. This is not a fair test. The students need to be reminded that they should start with more than one of each bean plant, just in case one of them is a dud. And, it might turn out that vinegar is good for germination of bean seeds.

  • Conclusion: When your students have finished their study or experiment, they must discuss their results with one another. They must find out who had the same results, who had different results, why the results might have been different. They must interpret the results according to their original question. What do the results mean? The results will almost certainly lead to another question, and the process begins again.

Notice that the class discussion of the conclusion is the debrief of the lesson. This is when the meaning of the lesson can be put into the context of the unit as a whole.

A big advantage of inquiry where students have most of the control over the activity is that students of different cultural backgrounds have different principles of inquiry. Western science has answered many questions, but has always answered questions of interest to Western males. The methods of science ­ looking for evidence in the empirical world to answer our questions ­ can be used by different cultures. If you have a class with students of different cultures, encourage the students to talk about questions of interest to them. You must listen carefully, and be watchful. Often, minority students are quiet in class. When do you notice that they are paying close attention to you? Is it because of what you are talking about or how you are acting that is of interest to them?

MAIN PERANAN : ROLE PLAY


There are two different kinds of role play. One kind involves having students act as if they were components of a physical or biological system. For example, you might have three students act as Oxygen and Magnesium. First, two students hold hands. They are an oxygen molecule. Then a spark comes along, to ignite the student who is acting as magnesium. Magnesium then takes one of the oxygen atoms, and the other oxygen atom is alone. You have had your students demonstrate a chemical reaction. A biology example would be to have some students act as blood cells, and to move to different locations in the classroom, where students acting as different body organs give or take from the blood. The blood would attach to oxygen in the lungs, attach to food in the intestines (etc.) and trade oxygen for carbon dioxide at the cells, etc. I hope from this simple description, you can invent your own situations of when and how to use this kind of role play.

The other kind of role play involves an ethical issue. Students act as humans in a situation where a decision must be made. Different students are given brief descriptions of who they are and maybe a description of their feelings about the issue. Then the students act out their roles and make a decision about the issue. This kind of role play is the one I will describe in great detail below. Remember that a Science-Technology-Society-Environment approach to science teaching should involve the students in discussing the impact of science and technology on society and the environment, and the impact of society and the environment on science and technology. Thus, there are many, many issues you can create role plays for.

This second kind of role play is designed to foster the analysis of personal values. It should help students to develop strategies for solving personal and interpersonal problems. Hopefully, the students will also develop some empathy for others. Students should become more comfortable with expressing their opinions. You want to watch to ensure that other students do not judge the players harshly. The students are, after all, playing roles. Every role should be sympathetically presented, but we might not like what the particular character stands for.

You would choose role plays to help your students engage with STSE issues. Although you will have a limited number of students performing in each role play, the most effective role plays are ones in which all students are involved in some way. I will suggest two ways in which you can get all students involved. You can probably think of other ways. Whatever way you choose to have all the students involved at the end, you should inform the whole class in the beginning of how they will all be involved.

The role play should be pertinent to the unit your students are studying. The role play should not feel like something you have added on, just to address STSE issues. These lessons can specifically target STSE, but your other lessons in the unit should also address STSE issues.

Practicalities

Creating the role play:

  • Brainstorm for yourself several issues to do with the unit. Choose one which you think would make an effective role play. Then choose six to eight roles for students to act out. These roles should be of people who will have different interests in the result of the discussion. For example, if the role play is to discuss whether the local chemical plant should clean up its land, then there will probably be people who will lose their jobs if the plant is forced to spend all its money on clean up, and there will probably be local business people who rely on the plant workers for income, and there might be neighbours of the chemical plant who will be, or have been, affected adversely by the plant, etc.
  • Each role should be described clearly and succinctly. Your students should be able to read over the character descriptions in a few minutes
  • Choose a line of action for these role players to take. The line of action might be having a town council meeting to decide if the chemical plant should clean up its dump site now. Simplicity is the key. If your students need background information to be able to carry out the role play, this should already have been addressed in class.

Preparing the students for roles:

  • There are two ways for preparing the students.
    - One way is to give the students a week or so to prepare themselves for the role. This can be very effective, especially if you have a motivated and inspired class. You will be pleasantly surprised, usually, about the amount of preparation some of your students do for their roles. This gives students who are not strong in science a chance to be good in a different aspect of science. Not all your students will take on the opportunity, but, as I mentioned, you will probably be surprised by which students do.
    - Another way is to give the selected students five minutes before the performance to read over their roles, and discuss their roles with the other members of the role play. While these students are discussing their roles (usually they will do this in the hall), you work with the rest of the class. Perhaps the rest of the class will set the stage. Perhaps the rest of the class will be learning some background information.
  • Regardless of which way you prepare your students for their roles, you should pick who will perform which role. There are two reasons for you choosing.
    - One reason is that you will have pedagogical reasons for choosing certain students. You might want to choose a child who likes to be in charge to be the chairperson of a meeting. You might want to choose a child who is antagonistic to another child to act as that child=s friend. You might want to choose a child who is struggling with a particular concept to act a role where the student must research that concept to prepare for the role.
    - The other reason for you choosing is that you will have many different role plays throughout the term. You will want to balance the groups who act so that every student has a chance to act. The first role play will involve one or two of the more extroverted students, so that the more shy students will see how easy role plays are before they are forced to act.

The action:

- Just before the role play begins, you will introduce the role play. You will explain what role playing is about (for the first role play the students engage in. This will be less important as your students become familiar with how role plays work.)
- You will make the problem explicit to your class. Whatever the line of action is, the actors must make a decision about an issue. The issue will be one where the right choice is not clear cut. In other words, your students should be facing a dilemma.
- You might or might not set a time limit for the action. If you are going to set a time limit, you will notify your students of the time limit in advance, and you will also remind them at the point where they must stop action and make their decision.
- You now step back and let the actors take over. Ideally, there would be one student who will be the chair of the role play - either officially (the chairperson of the town council meeting, or the person who must make the final decision, etc.) If you want one student to act as the chair of the role play as well as the playing a role, you will have to tell that student that this is part of his/her role. This student will then take charge of advising the players that they must stop action and make a decision.
- While your students act, you will make anecdotal records, or fill in checklists, or enjoy the role play.

Whole class involvement:

As I mentioned, I know of two ways in which the whole class can be involved.

- If the role play involves a town council meeting, you can have the whole class get involved in the discussion after the players have had their say. Then the whole class can cast their votes, as well as the role players. If you are going to conduct the role play so that all students can be involved in the discussion at the end, you will have to inform the whole class at the beginning that they will all be involved. Even if the role play is not a town council meeting, you might have the whole class involved at the end. For example, if a family had to make a decision on something, students could be asked to act as neighbours and to make suggestions to different family members. Then the family would make their decision.

A very different way of getting the whole class involved is to have the players make their decision. Then the whole class discusses whether they think the actor played the role as the particular character would have played it. For example, in the case of the chemical plant clean-up, is an employee of the plant, one who has just purchased a house, likely to vote that the plant will just have to clean up, even if it goes bankrupt? Students in the audience consider whether the character would have been likely to make that decision. Then those students who think an actor should have played the role differently will have an opportunity to act as that player, to see how things might have played out differently.

Wednesday, March 25, 2009

KULIAH 11: PEMBINAAN SOALAN / ITEM


Item ialah perkara atau alat yang digunakan untuk mendapatkan respons yang merupakan evidens yang boleh dipertimbangkan dalam pentaksiran/pengukuran sesuatu konstruk.

Perkara-perkara yang misti ada di dalam sesuatu soalan atau item
1.Stimulus Stem
2.pilihan jawapan
3.Jawapan
4.Distrakto
r

1. Stimulus ialah Suatu maklumat yang autentik berbentuk teks atau grafik yang menjadi fokus kepada situasi tugasan
2. Stem ialah pernyataan maklumat yang diperlukan untuk menjawab item dan pernyataan tugasan yang dinyatakan dalam bentuk soalan lengkap atau tidak lengkap.
3.pilihan jawapan ialah senarai cadangan jawapan atau penyelesaian
4. Jawapan ialah pilahan jawapan yang betul atau terbaik
5. Distraktor ialah pilihan jawapan yang bukan jawapan,berfungsi menarik perhatian calun yang tidak menguasai sesuatu bidang atau konsep,merupakan pernyataan yang memang salah,sebahagian salah atau betul tetapi tidak menepati kehendak soalan

Tuesday, March 17, 2009

STRATEGI MENGGUNAKAN 1 KOMPUTER UNTUK PELAJAR 25 ORANG ATAU LEBIH


1. Gunakan komputer untuk diri sendiri
A. Peralatan untuk memudahkan P&P

B. Menggunakan word untuk menyediakan soalan ujian dll

C. Menggunakan excell untuk lembaran kerja, markah pelajar dll

D. Mencari bahan seperti rancangan pelajaran daripada internet.
E. Gunakan laman web untuk perbincangan dan soal jawab dengan lain-lain guru

2. Presentation Tool
A.Gunakan perisian untuk membuat persembahan seperti Powerpoint,HyperStudio,flash,open office impress,Photoshop,Applekeynote ,NXPowerLite, PowerPlugs Charts

B.Persembahan dalam bentuk visual membantu kefahaman pelajar terhadap konsep dan isi yang hendak di sampaikan
C.Students can also use presentation software to support their presentations.

D.http://mr_sedivy.tripod.com/med_hist.html

3.Demonstration
A.PERISTIWA PERJUMPAAN DI ANTARA WAKIL KERAJAAN PERSEKUTUAN DENGAN PKM B.ROMBONGAN KEMERDEKAAN KE LONDON

C.http://www.efieldtrips.org/

D.http://ethicalego.com/Relations/blog4.php/2008/12/10/slavery-lesson

4.Learning Center
A.you can use:

B.content-specific software for simulations,

C.tutorials

D.drill-and-practice;

E.CD-ROMs or the Internet for research;a spreadsheet for calculations; word processor for preparing reports

F.you can create computer-based learning modules, using HyperStudio, PowerPoint or an Internet browser.

G. http://www.education.umd.edu/blt/hyperstudio/

5. Simulation
A.you can use simulation software with the whole class, so that the group makes all the decisions.

B.Use any of the simulation software intended for one user, like SimCity or SimEarth, or software which includes groupactivities, like the Decisions, Decisions series from Tom Snyder.

C.Assign different roles to students: one could be the note taker, another the keyboarder, another a reference checker, another an observer.

D.http://www.activehistory.co.uk/

6. Bring an Expert to your Class
A.Use the computer as a mailbox for email projects.

B.Kita boleh perolehi maklum balas/respone yang cepat tanpa sempadan dengan gunakan email


7.Collaboration
A.Set up a database (you can use a spreadsheet program) that students collect information for, and enter whenever they have time. Spt excell,lotus 1,2,3,open office org etc

B.This could be as simple as a database of students, or a compilation of observations on the weather.

C.When you use the data later, the students have some ownership. As an example, have students put information about the weather (precipitation, barometric pressure, wind speed) into a spreadsheet, and then graph the data to look for correlations, or use database tools to explore the relationships of different elements.Have students keep a class journal on the computer. Students who are absent can check the next day to see what they missed.

8. Seft-Directed Work
A.You can schedule each student for 20 or 30 minutes each week, then let each student decide how to use the time.

B.Students could use the computer to research a current project, prepare a report, or do another activity tied to your curriculum.

C .To ensure students are using the time well, create a computer journal, and have each student fill out a journal entry each time she or he uses a computer.

D.http://www.internet4classrooms.com/assistance.htm

simulation activity

video

simulation activity example



Sunday, March 15, 2009

KULIAH 10 : Pengintegrasian Teknologi Maklumat





Teknologi maklumat digunakan dalam pendidikan sebagai satu alat untuk membantu dan meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran. Persekitaran multimedia di bilik darjah dapat diwujudkan apabila guru dan pelajar menggunakan buku teks, bahan manipulatif, overhead projector, peralatan muzik, televisyen, dan komputer. Antara pelbagai alat multimedia tersebut, komputer merupakan teknologi yang paling sesuai untuk membantu pelajar mencapai matlamat pembelajaran kerana ia dapat mengintegrasikan audio, teks, video dan grafik dengan berkesan. Komputer boleh digunakan untuk mengoptimumkan proses melalui pelbagai mod. Antara mod tersebut termasuklah:

(a) Mod Sokongan (The Support)

Dalam mod sokongan, pelajar mengguna komputer untuk meningkatkan mutu hasil kerja dan bahan persembahan yang berkesan. Antara pelbagai perlatan yang boleh digunakan ialah pemprosesan perkataan (Word, Amipro, WordPerfect atau Wordstar), hamparan elektronik (Excel, Lotus 1,2,3 etc) dan persembahan grafik (Paint, PrintShop, Photoshop etc). PowerPoint dan Freelance Graphics boleh juga diambil kira sebagai perisian untuk mod sokongan ini.

(a) Mod Penemuan dan Kawalan (The Exploration & Control Mode)

Dalam mod ini, pelajarn dapat meneliti dan meneroka sesuatu situasi secara simulasi. Misalnya, pelajar boleh meneroka sesuatu peristiwa sejarah dan kajian luar mengikut sesuatu masa dan tempat yang disimulasikan oleh perisian interaktif seperti Encarta, Expert Builder, Model Builder, Hypercard dan Intellecta. Kebanyak perisian terbuka seperti The Animals, Al-Quran, Encyclopedia Science, dsb boleh juga dikategorikan dalam mod ini.

(a) Mod Tutorial (The Tutorial Mode)

Dalam mod ini, pelajar diperkenalkan pengetahuan dan kemahiran secara berperingkat yang bersesuaian dengan kebolehan pelajar. Pembelajaran berlaku mengikut kemampuan sendiri dan pelajar mendapat motivasi untuk terus belajar kerana pencapaian dan kemajuan boleh didapati secara serta merta. Perisian seperti KBSM Sains, Maths Blaster, Essential Maths, Essential Science dsb boleh digulungkan di dalam kategori ini.

(a) Mod Resos (The Resource Mode)

Dalam mod ini, komputer digunakan untuk mengakses maklumat dan sumber pengajaran dan pembelajaran memalui internet. Pelajar boleh mengakses World Wide Web (WWW) untuk mendapatkan maklumat tentang kajian luar maya, projek, format penyelidikan dan kaedah terkini.

(a) Mod Perhubungan (The Link Mode)

Dalam mod ini, komputer digunakan untuk berkomunikasi di antara individu. Pelajar boleh menggunakan e-mail dan fax untuk berkomunikasi dan menghantar teks dan mesej serta mengalami pembelajaran jarak jauh melalui persidangan video.

Monday, March 9, 2009

KULIAH 9: PENDEKATAN PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN

KULIAH 9: PENDEKATAN PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN

1. PEMBLAJARAN BERPUSATKAN PELAJAR

• Tumpuan kepada perkembangan pembelajaran (pelajar sebagai individu), memberi pilihan kepadapelajar (jenis pengetahuan dan apa yang ingin dipelajari), mewujudkan kolaborasi (membina pengetahuan dan persekitaran positif), terlibat dalam penilaian berterusan; sikap guru yang mendengar pandangan pelajar dan melibatkan pelajar untuk merancang.

2. PEMBELAJARAN BERSIFAT INDIVIDU

•Pelajar diberi peluang melibatkan diri secara langsung dalam proses pembelajaran

3. PEMBELAJARAN MASTERI

Seorang pelajar boleh & dapat belajar apa sahaja mengikut keadaan yang sesuai.
4. PEMBELAJARAN BERFIKRAH
Proses P & P yang menekankan iklim bilik darjah yg menggalakkan pelajar berfikir secara aktif pada tahap yg kompleks
• Strategi guru • Perlakuan pelajar

5. PEMBELAJARAN BERPANDUKAN TEKNOLOGI

Jenis Teknologi

•Bercetak • Audio • Video • Komputer • Multimedia

6. PEMBELAJARAN BERASASKAN OTAK

Proses pembelajaran berkait rapat dengan struktur dan perkembangan otak.Otak manusia berfungsi sebagai “ parallel processor” melibatkan keseluruhan fisiologi manusia melalui emosi,persepsi,rangsangan dan pelbagai dimensi deria.
7. PEMBELAJARAN BERASASKAN PROJEK

Merupakan kaedah pembelajaran dan pengajaran yang berfokus , iaitu melibatkan pembelajaran
berpusatkan pelajar, boleh menghubungkaitkan antara pelbagai bidang dan kesepaduan dengan
masalah kehidupan seharian, merupakan satu kaedah yang amat menarik untuk memantapkan minat
pelajar. Ia memberikan pengalaman berbentuk praktikal. Contoh melukis pelan sekolah, projek mural
dan lain-lain.
STRATEGI PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN
1. Direktif Pelajar menerima maklumat, pengetahuan dan kemahiran melalui penerangan daripada
guru dengan tunjuk cara, bimbingan, latihan, diikuti dengan ujian untuk menilai
kefahaman
2. Pemerhatian Pelajar membuat pemerhatian terhadap perlakuan orang lain atau penerangan tentang
sesuatu kemahiran 3. Mediatif Pelajar berupaya mengaplikasikan pengetahuan sedia ada untuk menyelesaikan
masalah, membuat keputusan, mengenalpasti andaian, membuat inferen dan hipotesis
4. Generatif
Pelajar digalakkan menjana idea secara kritis dan kreatif, diasuh menyelesaikan sesuatu
masalah e.g. sumbang saran, metafora, pemikiran lateral, peta minda
5. Kajian Masa Depan Strategi secara saintifik yang dibina untuk menambah keupayaan pelajar dalam
menghadapi pelbagai cabaran hidup dan membuat keputusan bagi menghasilkan
generasi masa depan yang berkeyakinan, berupaya dan bertanggungjawab
6. Konteks-Luar
Pelajar melalui aktiviti yang berfokus dan intensif dalam satu tempoh masa seperti
menghadiri seminar, bengkel, projek dan proses latih amal.
7. Pembelajaran kontekstual
Pembelajaran kontekstual ialah kaedah pembelajaran yang menggabungkan isi
kandungan dengan pengalaman harian individu, masyarakat dan alam pekerjaan. Kaedah
ini menyediakan pembelajaran secara konkrit yang melibatkan aktiviti hands – on dan
minds – on.

Saturday, March 7, 2009

KULIAH 8: Penyoalan dalam P&P

1.Kemahiran MenyoalKemahiran menyoal boleh menjadi salah satu teknik pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang efektif di bilik darjah untuk menggalakkan interaksiantara guru dan murid serta murid dan murid.

2.Penyoalan dapat merangsang murid berfikir secara kritis, analitis, dan mendapat maklum balas yang logik dan tepat.
Tambahan pula penyoalan dapat membantu menghubungkan di antara guru dengan murid dan
menyatukan ahli-ahli kumpulan melalui interaksi.

3. TEKNIK MENYOAL

•Pembelajaran boleh dirangsang melalui teknik penyoalan. Teknik ini membolehkan guru menilai maklum balas secara berterusan.
•Oleh itu,adalah perlu guru merancang terlebih dahulu bentuk soalan yang hendak dikemukakan dan guru tidak harus terikat sepenuhnya dengan soalan-soalan secara spontan.
• Soalan-soalan yang ada kaitan dengan minat murid juga boleh digunakan.

4. Pembelajaran boleh dirangsang melalui teknik penyoalan. Teknik ini membolehkan guru menilai maklum balas secara berterusan.
•Oleh itu,adalah perlu guru merancang terlebih dahulu bentuk soalan yang hendak dikemukakan dan guru tidak harus terikat sepenuhnya dengan soalan-soalan secara spontan.
• Soalan-soalan yang ada kaitan dengan minat murid juga boleh digunakan.
•Memandangkan penyoalan adalah cara yang berkesan untuk menggalakkan penyertaan murid secara aktif, guru perlu menggunakan soalan sekerap mungkin.
•Penyoalan boleh digunakan pada peringkat permulaan,perkembangan dan peringkat penutup pelajaran.

5. Peringkat Permulaan Pembelajaran

•Pada peringkat ini soalan digunakan untuk: mencungkil pengetahuan yang sedia ada pada murid mengaitkan pelajaran lepas dengan pelajaran baru menumpukan perhatian serta minat murid pada pelajaran yang akan dipersembahkan.

6. Peringkat Perkembangan Pembelajaran

•Pada peringkat ini soalan digunakan untuk: menduga kefahaman murid mengenai bahan pelajaran yang dibincangkan memastikan penyertaan murid yang aktif mengekalkan minat murid serta tumpuan perhatian mereka.

7. Peringkat Penutup

•Soalan pada peringkat penutup digunakan untuk membuat rumusan pelajaran menguji kefahaman murid secara menyeluruh.

8. Pada umumnya turutan menyoal di dalam kelas boleh dijalankan sepertiyang berikut:

•a. guru mengemukakan soalan kepada murid
•b. guru memberi masa untuk murid menjawab
•c. guru boleh tujukan soalan tersebut kepada semua murid di kelas
•d. guru boleh memanggil murid tertentu menjawab
•e. guru memberi perhatian kepada jawapan yang dikemukakan dan seterusnya ajukan
jawapan murid tersebut kepada murid lain.

•Pastikan ramai murid dapat mengambil bahagian dalam aktiviti pelajaran.
•Di samping itu soalan elok dikemukakan mengikut turutan yang logik dan
•jawapan murid diulangi untuk menunjukkan pentingnya jawapan yang
•lebih mendalam dan dapat menjelaskan `mengapa’ dan `bagaimana’. Beri
•pertimbangan kepada soalan-soalan `fakta’ dan soalan-soalan yang
•memerlukan `pemikiran’.

9.Pada umumnya soalan boleh dibahagikan kepada soalan menumpu dan
•soalan mencapah. Soalan-soalan ini digunakan untuk tujuan tertentu.

i. Soalan Menumpu

•Jenis soalan ini berdasarkan kepada susunan beberapa soalan secara bersiri.
• Soalan jenis ini bertujuan untuk menumpukan idea atau hujah yang hendak diketengahkan.

•Contoh:
•1. Nyatakan 2 peringkat perkembangan penentangan Dol Said di Naning?
•2. Namakan 3 tokoh yang terlibat di dalam penentangan Dol Said di Naning?
•3. Perihalkan 2 peringkat perkembangan penentangan Dol Said di Naning
•4. Terangkan bagaimana British boleh memenangi peperangan kali kedua ke atas Naning?

ii. Soalan Mencapah

Soalan jenis ini memerlukan daya pemikiran yang kritis, analitis dan rasional murid sebelum memberikan jawapan.
•Ia bertujuan untuk mengalihkan perhatian murid dari satu hujah kepada hujah yang lain yang ada kaitan dengan hujah awal supaya pemahaman murid bertambah luas.

•Contoh:
•1. Mengapakah pada awal kebangkitan menentang penjajah tidak ramai orang menyertai penentangan tersebut?
•2. Ceritakan apa akan berlaku jika penentangan berlaku serentak di seluruh Negeri-Negeri
elayu Bersekutu?
•3. Pada pendapat anda, berikan alasan kesan daripada kebangkitan Hj Abdul Rahman Limbong di Terengganu pada tahun 1928.

Wednesday, March 4, 2009

KULIAH 7: PENGGUNAAN BUKU TEKS

lBuku teks Sejarah dalam konteks ini merupakan salah satu media cetak yang terpenting. Buku teks Sejarah juga digunakan sebagai bahan
lBuku teks ditulis berdasarkan Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran Sejarah KBSM yang baru dan diluluskan oleh Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.

lBuku teks Sejarah mengekalkan Kesepaduan unsur pengetahuan sejarah,
lpemupukan nilai-nilai murni, patriotisme dan kemahiran belajar.

l2.1. Buku teks Sejarah Tingkatan 4 mengandungi 10 bab seperti berikut:- Tema 7 (Tamadun Awal Manusia)
lTema 8 (Tamadun Islam dan Perkembangannya)
lTema 9 (Perkembangan Di Eropah dan Kesannya Terhadap Ekonomi Negara)

l2.2. Buku teks Sejarah Tingkatan 5 mengandungi 9 bab seperti berikut:- Tema 10 (Kemunculan dan Perkembangan Nasionalisme Sehingga
lPerang Dunia Kedua). Tema 11 (Pembinaan Negara dan Bangsa Ke Arah Kemunculan Negara Malaysia Berdaulat)
lTema 12 (Malaysia dan Kerjasama Masyarakat Antarabangsa).

l3. Kelebihan Buku Teks Sejarah
1.1. Buku teks mempunyai peta konsep sebagai garis kasar isi pelajaran yang boleh digunakan oleh guru dalam perancangan pelajaran, lcontoh seperti buku teks Ting.5, m.s. 2.

2.Terdapat ringkasan dan rumusan sejumlah maklumat penting yang berkaitan dengan sesuatu bidang. Memudahkankan murid memperoleh bahan khusus dalam bentuk yang telah disatukan.

3.Menyediakan sumber maklumat yang seragam untuk semua murid. Memberi idea kepada guru tentang organisasi maklumat dan aktiviti yang dapat dilaksanakan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran.

4.terdapat gambar, graf, peta dan bahan-bahan ilustrasi yang memudahkan pemahaman murid, contoh buku teks Ting. 5,m.s.4.

5. Terdapat lain-lain bahan pengajaran seperti ringkasan, latihan dan soalan terancang, contoh buku teks Ting.5, m.s. 7.

lSatu aspek yang dipertimbangkan dalam penggunaan buku teks ialah

1.kesukaran murid memahami istilah yang sukar, abstrak dan di luar pengalaman mereka.
lGuru Sejarah harus membantu murid merujuk buku teks secara berkesan khususnya di kalangan murid yang berprestasi rendah.

lGuru Sejarah terlebih dahulu perlu merangka soalan-soalan berdasarkan tajuk yang akan diajar. Seterusnya membantu murid memilih isi-isi penting dengan menggunakan kata kunci atau kad bertema yang tercatat isinya.

lGuru Sejarah perlu mendidik murid menyusun maklumat yang diperolihi dan berfikir secara sistematis dalam mengisi petak lembaran kerja yang disediakan sebagai latihan.

lCara terbaik memudahkan murid mengingat maklumat adalah melalui pembinaan peta minda yang menggambarkan perkembangan dan perkaitan isi penting.

lBuku teks Sejarah boleh digunakan sepanjang proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran sama ada permulaan, pertengahan atau pada akhir pembelajaran.